dvaita

dvaita
/dvuy"teuh/, n. Hinduism.
1. any of the pluralistic schools of philosophy.
2. (cap.) (in Vedantic philosophy) one of the two principal schools, asserting that entities have a real existence apart from Brahman. Cf. Advaita.
[ < Skt; akin to TWO]

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▪ Hindu philosophy
      (Sanskrit: “Dualism”), an important school in the orthodox Hindu philosophical system of Vedānta. Its founder was Madhva, also called Ānandatīrtha (c. 1199–1278), who came from the area of modern Karnataka state, where he still has many followers. Already during his lifetime, Madhva was regarded by his followers as an incarnation of the wind god Vāyu, who had been sent to earth by the lord Vishnu to save the good, after the powers of evil had sent the philosopher Śaṅkara, an important proponent of the Advaita (“Nondualist”) school.

      In his expositions, Madhva shows the influence of the Nyāya philosophic school. He maintains that Vishnu is the supreme God, thus identifying the Brahman of the Upaniṣads with a personal God, as Rāmānuja (c. 1050–1137) had done before him. There are in Madhva's system three eternal, ontological orders: that of God, that of soul, and that of inanimate nature. The existence of God is demonstrable by logical proof, though only scripture teaches his nature. He is the epitome of all perfections and possesses a nonmaterial body, which consists of saccidānanda (being, spirit, and bliss). God is the efficient cause of the universe, but Madhva denies that he is the material cause, for God cannot have created the world by splitting himself nor in any other way, since that militates against the doctrine that God is unalterable; in addition, it is blasphemous to accept that a perfect God changes himself into an imperfect world.

      The individual souls are countless in number and are of atomic proportions. They are a “portion” of God and exist completely by the grace of God; in their actions they are totally subject to God. It is God, too, that allows the soul, to a limited extent, freedom of action in a way commensurate with one's past acts (karma).

      Ignorance, which for Madhva as for many other Indian philosophers means mistaken knowledge (ajñāna), can be removed or corrected by means of devotion ( bhakti). Devotion can be attained in various ways: by solitary study of the scriptures, by performing one's duty without self-interest, or by practical acts of devotion. This devotion is accompanied by an intuitive insight into God's nature, or it may be a special kind of knowledge. Bhakti may itself become a goal; for the devotee, his adoration of Vishnu is more important than the release that ensues from it.

      The present-day following of Dvaita has as its centre a monastery at Udipi, in Karnataka state, which was founded by Madhva himself and has continued under an uninterrupted series of abbots.

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • dvaita —    Dvaita (from dvi, two) is usually translated as “dualist.” In theological terms it refers to the notion that God is completely separate and differ ent from the human soul.    Abrahamic traditions in their normative form    Judaism,… …   Encyclopedia of Hinduism

  • DVAITA — Terme qui, dans l’hindouisme, caractérise la doctrine de la dualité, par opposition à celle qui professe une sorte de monisme. La métaphysique hindoue est dominée par la problématique propre au ved nta. Ce dar ごana («point de vue», «système… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Dvaita —   [Sanskrit »Zweiheit«, »Dualismus«] der, , eine Richtung des Vedantasystems (indische Philosophie), die im Gegensatz zum Advaita die Gespaltenheit des Wirklichen in eine seelisch geistige und eine materielle Wirklichkeit lehrt. Die bedeutendsten …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Dvaita — Part of a series on Hindu philosophy …   Wikipedia

  • Dvaita — Le dvaita ( द्वैत en devanāgarī)[1] ce terme sanskrit signifie dualisme, dualité, doctrine prêchée par Madhva ou Madhvācārya (1238 1317), philosophe opposé à Śaṅkara (philosophe de l Advaita Vedānta, non dualisme) ; il enseignait au maṭha… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Dvaita — Dvai|ta, waita der; <aus sanskr. dvaitá »Zweiheit«> Lehre der ind. Philosophie des ↑Vedanta, die, alle Einheit negierend, nur die Zweiheit von Gott u. Welt gelten lässt …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch

  • dvaitá — द्वैत …   Indonesian dictionary

  • dvaita — /dvuy teuh/, n. Hinduism. 1. any of the pluralistic schools of philosophy. 2. (cap.) (in Vedantic philosophy) one of the two principal schools, asserting that entities have a real existence apart from Brahman. Cf. Advaita. [ Skt; akin to TWO] …   Useful english dictionary

  • Dvaita Forest — or Dvaitavana (द्वैतवन) was situated to the south of the Kamyaka Forest. It contained within it a lake called the Dwaita lake, abounding with flowers, and delightful to look at, and inhabited by many species of birds, elephants and many trees… …   Wikipedia

  • Dvaita Vedanta — Vedanta (Sanskrit, m., वेदान्त, vedānta) ist neben dem Samkhya eine der heute populärsten Richtungen der indischen Philosophie und heißt wörtlich übersetzt: „Ende“ bzw. „Vollendung des Veda“ d. h. der als Offenbarung verstandenen frühindischen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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