dressage

dressage
/dreuh sahzh"/; Fr. /drdde sannzh"/, n.
1. See haute école (def. 1).
2. the art or method of training a horse in obedience and in precision of movement.
[1935-40; < F, equiv. to dress(er) to DRESS + -age -AGE]

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I

Equestrian sport involving the execution of precision movements by a trained horse in response to barely perceptible signals from its rider.

Particularly important are the animal's pace and bearing in performing walks, trots, canters, and more specialized maneuvers. Training is divided into the elementary campagne and the advanced haute école. Dressage competitions have been included in the Olympic Games since 1912. Riders compete as individuals and in teams.
II
(as used in expressions)
occupational training
job training
training transfer of

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sports
French“training”
 systematic and progressive training of riding horses to execute precisely any of a wide range of maneuvers, from the simplest riding gaits to the most intricate and difficult airs and figures of haute école (“high school”). Dressage achieves balance, suppleness, and obedience with the purpose of improving and facilitating the horse's performance of normal tasks. If the advanced training stage is reached, dressage may become an objective in itself. Competitions in dressage are regularly included in the Olympic Games, for individuals from 1912 and for teams from 1928.

      Of great importance to dressage is collection, in which the horse's gaits are shortened and raised by bringing the balance rearward to lighten the forehand, thus giving special agility in a limited space. This change is made without sacrificing ability to move freely. The desired result is that the horse will be keen but submissive and support the weight of the rider without undue strain on any set of joints or muscles. The overall objectives are to enable the horse to comply easily and willingly with the demands of the rider and at the same time to improve the horse's pace and bearing.

      Dressage is generally divided into elementary training (campagne) and the much more advanced haute école. Elementary training consists of teaching the young horse obedience, balance, and relaxation. Starting with the horse on a longe line, or training rope, and then under the saddle, the horse is taught basic and natural movements, especially on a straight line, with some collection and extension of gaits, half and full halts, backing, and turns. The more capable horses may learn movements on two tracks (moving diagonally to the side and forward), basic figures, and variations of the canter. In haute école, practiced most eminently at the Spanish Riding School of Vienna, the horse's natural movements are developed to the greatest perfection. It moves in almost perfect balance and precision; it walks, trots, and canters in highest collection and extension, all in response to barely perceptible movements of its rider's hands, legs, and weight. Typical haute école movements include the pirouette, a turn on the haunches in four or five strides at a collected canter; the piaffe, a trot in place; the passage, a very collected, cadenced, high-stepping trot; the levade, in which the horse raises and draws in its forelegs, standing balanced on its bent hind legs; the courvet (courbette), a jump forward at the levade; and the capriole, in which the horse jumps straight upward, with its forelegs drawn in, kicking back with its hind legs horizontal, and lands again in the same spot from which it took off.
 

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Universalium. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • dressage — [ dresaʒ ] n. m. • 1791; dressure n. f. 1854; de dresser ♦ Action de dresser. 1 ♦ Action d installer (qqch.) en faisant tenir droit. Dressage d une tente, d un lit. ⇒ montage. 2 ♦ Techn. Opération qui consiste à donner une forme plane. Dressage… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • dressage — n. maneuvers of a horse in response to body signals by the rider. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • dressage — (n.) 1936, from Fr. dressage, from dresser to train, drill (see DRESS (Cf. dress) (v.)). Middle English had dress (v.) in the sense of to train or break in a horse or other animal (c.1400), but it died out …   Etymology dictionary

  • dressage — /fr. dʀeˈsaʒ/ [vc. fr., da dresser «drizzare» e «indirizzare, istruire»] s. m. inv. (di animali da corsa) addestramento …   Sinonimi e Contrari. Terza edizione

  • dressage — ► NOUN ▪ the art of riding and training horses so as to develop obedience, flexibility, and balance. ORIGIN French, training …   English terms dictionary

  • dressage — [dre säzh′] n. [Fr, training < dresser, to arrange, train < OFr drecier: see DRESS] exhibition riding or horsemanship in which the horse is controlled in certain difficult steps and gaits by very slight movements of the rider …   English World dictionary

  • Dressage — An upper level dressage competitor performing an extended trot. Dressage (pronounced /ˈdrɛsɑːʒ/ or /drɨˈsɑːʒ/) (a French term, most commonly translated to mean training ) is a competitive equestrian sport, defined by the International E …   Wikipedia

  • Dressage — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sur les autres projets Wikimedia : « Dressage », sur le Wiktionnaire (dictionnaire universel) En sport, le dressage est une discipline… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • DRESSAGE — n. m. Action de dresser. Le dressage d’un fil de fer, d’une barre de fer. Fig., Le dressage d’un cheval, d’un chien …   Dictionnaire de l'Academie Francaise, 8eme edition (1935)

  • dressage — (drè sa j ) s. m. 1°   Action de dresser, de redresser le fil destiné à faire des aiguilles ou des épingles. Le dressage des aiguilles. 2°   Action de dresser une glace, un miroir, etc. 3°   Terme de métallurgie. Préparation des meules de… …   Dictionnaire de la Langue Française d'Émile Littré


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