Dayton


Dayton
/dayt"n/, n.
1. Jonathan, 1760-1824, U.S. politician, Speaker of the House 1795-99.
2. a city in SW Ohio. 203,588.

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City (pop., 2000: 166,179), southwestern Ohio, U.S. Settled on the Miami River in 1796 by a group of Revolutionary War veterans, it developed as a river port shipping agricultural produce.

The 1829 opening of the Miami and Erie Canal between Dayton and Cincinnati and the 1851 arrival of the railroad stimulated its industrial growth. It was home to Wilbur and Orville Wright and is also their place of burial. The city is a market and distribution centre. It is the site of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (established 1946) and the Air Force Institute of Technology (1947). Home to several colleges and universities, it also has an art institute and a symphony orchestra.

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 city, seat (1803) of Montgomery county, southwestern Ohio, U.S., 54 miles (87 km) northeast of Cincinnati, on a low floodplain of the Great Miami River, at the confluence of the Stillwater and Mad rivers and of Wolf Creek. It is the heart of a metropolitan area that includes the cities of Kettering, Miamisburg, Xenia, Fairborn, Oakwood, and Vandalia.

      Following the peace treaty with the Shawnee Indians, signed at Greenville (1795), the area was opened to white settlement. The town was laid out by a group of Revolutionary War veterans, including Jonathan Dayton from New Jersey, for whom it was named. It developed as a river port for the shipment of agricultural produce, mainly to New Orleans. The opening of the Miami and Erie Canal, from Dayton to Cincinnati, in 1829, and the arrival in 1851 of a railroad to Springfield stimulated Dayton's commercial and industrial growth. The town became the home of the cash register after the mechanical money drawer was invented there in 1879 by James Ritty and perfected by John H. Patterson in the 1880s. In addition, the automobile self-starter was developed there by Charles F. Kettering, who, along with Edward A. Deeds, also produced ignition systems and electric lighting equipment for farms. In 1892 Wilbur and Orville Wright opened their bicycle repair shop in Dayton, where they conducted experiments that led to the first sustained and controlled flight of a powered airplane, at Kitty Hawk, N.C., in 1903; a monolith has been erected in memory of the brothers, who are buried in the city's Woodland Cemetery.

      In 1913 the most disastrous of a series of floods occurred in the area. After this, the Miami Conservancy District, a comprehensive flood-control project, was created. Dayton experienced the suburbanization typical of many North American cities after World War II; the central city lost residents and businesses while the metropolitan area grew overall. By the 1990s, efforts to revitalize the city centre had succeeded in bringing new commercial and residential development to the city.

      Dayton is now the heart of a large diversified urban complex and a market and distribution centre for a fertile agricultural region. It is also a national aviation centre, stemming from the establishment of experimental aviation laboratories during World Wars I and II and Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (1946), with its modern aviation complex, Air Force Institute of Technology (1947), and museum (1935; moved to current site 1971). Manufactures include auto parts and equipment, steel and aluminum products, machine tools, refrigerators, air conditioners, computers, office equipment, printing presses, and plastics.

      Within the metropolitan area are the University of Dayton (Roman Catholic; 1850), Wright State University (1967), the United Theological Seminary (United Methodist; 1871), Sinclair Community College (1887), and Miami-Jacobs (junior) Career College (1860). Dayton has an art institute, a museum of natural history, and a symphony orchestra. The Dayton home of poet Paul Laurence Dunbar (Dunbar, Paul Laurence) (1872–1906) is preserved as a state memorial and museum; the city's Greek Revival-style Old Courthouse (1850) now houses the Montgomery County Historical Society museum. Recreational facilities include Carillon Park, noted for concerts and historical exhibits (including a replica of the Wright Brothers bicycle shop). The Miamisburg Mound, one of the largest conical earthworks built by the prehistoric Adena culture (with a height of 65 feet [20 metres] and a circumference of 877 feet [267 metres]), is located just southwest of the city. Inc. town, 1805; city, 1841. Pop. (2000) city, 166,179; Dayton MSA, 848,153; (2005 est.) city, 158,873; Dayton MSA, 843,577.

      city, seat (1899) of Rhea county, southeastern Tennessee, U.S. It lies on Richland Creek near the Tennessee River, 36 miles (58 km) northeast of Chattanooga. Originally called Smith's Crossroads (c. 1820), it was renamed Dayton in the 1870s. The Rhea County Courthouse in Dayton was the scene of the famous Scopes Trial (July 10–21, 1925), in which John T. Scopes, a high school science teacher, was found guilty of teaching evolution. The trial pitted William Jennings Bryan (Bryan, William Jennings) for the prosecution against Clarence Darrow (Darrow, Clarence) for the defense. The courtroom is preserved and a museum about the trial is located in the building. The Scopes Trial Play and Festival is held annually in July, during which a reenactment of the trial is performed using the original court transcripts. Bryan College (1930) was built on a hill overlooking the city as a memorial to the silver-tongued orator and lawyer-politician, who died in Dayton five days after the trial ended.

      The city's economy is based on agriculture (tomatoes, pumpkins, apples, cabbage, and strawberries) and manufacturing (furniture, hosiery, clothing, and heating equipment). The Tennessee Strawberry Festival is held in May. Inc. 1895. Pop. (1990) 5,671; (2000) 6,180.

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Universalium. 2010.

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