Ajaria
A·jar·i·a (ə-järʹē-ə)
See Adzharia.

* * *

▪ autonomous republic, Georgia
Introduction
also spelled  Adjara , Adzhariya , or  Adžarija 
 autonomous republic in Georgia, in the southwestern corner of that country, adjacent to the Black Sea and the Turkish frontier. It is largely mountainous with the exception of a narrow coastal strip. Batumi is the capital and largest city. Area 1,120 square miles (2,900 square km). Pop. (2002) 376,016; (2007 est.) 378,800.

Geography
      Two east-west ranges, the Ajar-Imeretinsky in the north and the Shavshetsky in the south, rise from the Black Sea coastal lowlands to more than 9,200 feet (2,800 metres). Between the ranges lies the Ajaristskali River valley, which is closed at the eastern end by a third range, the Arsiyan Mountains. The coastal lowland area, which widens somewhat to the south of Batumi and again in the north around Kobuleti, has a humid subtropical climate with average January temperatures ranging from 41 to 46 °F (5 to 8 °C) and average August temperatures ranging from 70 to 73 °F (21 to 23 °C). The climate becomes more severe in the foothills and mountains as elevation increases; above 6,000 feet (1,800 metres) it is cold, and snow lies on the summits for six months. The highest rainfall in Georgia occurs at Batumi, where an average 62 inches (1,600 mm) are recorded annually. Subtropical vegetation prevails in the lowland areas, and coniferous forests, scrub, and alpine meadows predominate on the mountain slopes.

      The population includes Georgians, Russians, Armenians, and the Ajars themselves, a Georgian population Islamicized under Turkish rule. Although the Ajars are not a nationality distinct from other Georgians, they do represent a distinctive cultural segment of the Georgian homeland. Of the total population, less than one-half is urban and two-thirds live in the coastal lowlands and foothills.

      Subtropical crops, which form the basis of the republic's economy, include tea, citrus fruits, and avocados, tung trees (for oil), eucalyptus trees (camphor oil), and bamboo. Tobacco is grown in the higher areas, in which livestock raising is also important. Industrial development is concentrated around Batumi, the terminus of a pipeline from Baku on the Caspian Sea. Industrial activity includes oil refining, shipping and shipbuilding, food processing, light manufacturing, and the production of wine, plywood, furniture, and chemical pharmaceuticals. The republic is linked with the rest of Georgia by a road over the Goderdzi Pass in the Arsiyan Mountains and by the Transcaucasian Railway, which runs north along the coast from Batumi, then eastward. Ajaria has air services from Batumi to Tbilisi, Georgia; Moscow; and other cities.

History
      Ajaria was under Turkish rule from the 17th century until 1878, when it was annexed by Russia and attached to Georgia. From 1922 to 1991 it was an autonomous republic of the U.S.S.R.; following the dissolution of the U.S.S.R., it became part of the newly independent country of Georgia. From 1991 to 2004, the region was under the leadership of Aslan Abashidze, a pro-Russian ruler from a distinguished family of Ajar descent. Following a constitutional amendment passed by the Georgian parliament in April 2000, Ajaria was officially designated an autonomous republic. Relations between Ajaria and the central Georgian government—already somewhat contentious—worsened following the 2004 election of Georgian Pres. Mikhail Saakashvili (Saakashvili, Mikhail), whose authority Abashidze refused to recognize. In May 2004 Abashidze ordered the destruction of two bridges linking Ajaria with the rest of Georgia, as well as the dismantling of rail lines—moves he argued were acts of self-defense against a Georgian invasion. Within days of an ultimatum issued by Saakashvili calling for Abashidze to return to Georgia's constitutional framework, as well as in the wake of broad demonstrations against the Ajar leader, Abashidze resigned his position and departed for Russia, and Ajaria was quickly placed under central authority.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ajaria —    An autonomous republic of Georgia. During the Soviet era, Ajaria was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) within the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. The region is dominated by ethnic Georgians known as Ajars, many of whom profess …   Historical Dictionary of the Russian Federation

  • Ajaria — Admin ASC 1 Code Orig. name Ajaria Country and Admin Code GE.04 GE …   World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II

  • Ajaria — or Adzharia geographical name autonomous republic SW Republic of Georgia on Black Sea capital Batumi area 1158 square miles (2999 square kilometers), population 381,500 …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Islam in Adjara — Ajaria or Adjaria is autonomous region of Georgia on border with Turkey. History Islam appeared in Ajaria between 1510 and the beginning of the seventeenth century when the Ottoman Empire started to expand in the Caucasus. As soon as Ajaria in… …   Wikipedia

  • Aslan Abashidze — ( ka. ასლან აბაშიძე) (born Batumi, July 20, 1938) was the leader of the Ajarian Autonomous Republic in western Georgia from 1991 to May 5, 2004. He resigned under the pressure of the central Georgian government and mass opposition rallies during… …   Wikipedia

  • 2004 Adjara crisis — The Ajaria crisis refers to a political crisis in Georgia’s Ajarian Autonomous Republic, then led by Aslan Abashidze, who refused to obey the central authorities after President Eduard Shevardnadze’s ousting during the Rose Revolution of November …   Wikipedia

  • Islam in Georgia (country) — Islam in Georgia was introduced in 645 A.D. when an army sent by the Second Caliph of Islam, Umar, conquered Eastern Georgia and established Muslim rule in Tbilisi. Muslims constitute 9.9%, or 463,062, of the Georgian population. There are two… …   Wikipedia

  • Georgia — /jawr jeuh/, n. 1. a state in the SE United States. 5,464,265; 58,876 sq. mi. (152,489 sq. km). Cap.: Atlanta. Abbr.: GA (for use with zip code), Ga. 2. Also called Georgian Republic. a republic in Transcaucasia, bordering on the Black Sea, N of… …   Universalium

  • Politics of Georgia — The Politics of Georgia is structured as a presidential representative democratic republic (semi presidential system), with a multi party system, and the President as head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal… …   Wikipedia

  • Georgia (country) — Georgia[1] საქართველო Sakartvelo …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”