—boycotter, n./boy"kot/, v.t.1. to combine in abstaining from, or preventing dealings with, as a means of intimidation or coercion: to boycott a store.2. to abstain from buying or using: to boycott foreign products.n.3. the practice of boycotting.4. an instance of boycotting.[after Charles C. Boycott (1832-97), English estate manager in Ireland, against whom nonviolent coercive tactics were used in 1880]
* * *Collective and organized ostracism applied in labour, economic, political, or social relations to protest and punish practices considered unfair.The tactic was popularized by Charles Stewart Parnell to protest high rents and land evictions in Ireland in 1880 by the estate manager Charles C. Boycott (b. 1832d. 1897). Boycotts are principally used by labour organizations to win improved wages and working conditions or by consumers to pressure companies to change their hiring, labour, environmental, or investment practices. U.S. law distinguishes between primary boycotts, which consist of the refusal by employees to purchase the goods or services of their employers, and secondary boycotts, which involve attempts to induce third parties to refuse to patronize the employer. The latter type of boycott is illegal in most states. Boycotts were used as a tactic in the U.S. civil rights movement of the 1950s and '60s and also have been applied to influence the conduct of multinational corporations.
* * *collective and organized ostracism applied in labour, economic, political, or social relations to protest practices that are regarded as unfair. The boycott was popularized by Charles Stewart Parnell (Parnell, Charles Stewart) during the Irish land agitation of 1880 to protest high rents and land evictions. The term boycott was coined after Irish tenants followed Parnell's suggested code of conduct and effectively ostracized a British estate manager, Charles Cunningham Boycott.The boycott is used most frequently by labour organizations as a tactic to win improved wages and working conditions from management. U.S. law distinguishes between primary and secondary labour boycotts: a primary boycott is the refusal of employees to purchase the goods or services of their employers, and a secondary boycott involves an attempt to induce third parties to refuse to patronize the employer. In most U.S. states, primary boycotts are legal if they involve no physical violence, coercion, or intimidation. Secondary boycotts, however, are illegal in most states.Boycotts were also used during the U.S. Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and '60s as a social and political tool. Stores and businesses that discriminated against blacks were boycotted, in the expectation that falling revenues would influence a company to change its policy.The term boycott may also signify a refusal to participate in given proceedings. Representatives of a nation may boycott international conferences or convocations, for example, as a means of indicating disapproval of another nation's political policy or conduct.Boycotts have also been employed by a nation or a group of nations, or by an international organization to influence or protest the policies or actions of another country. The United States, for example, called for a boycott of the summer Olympics (Olympic Games) of 1980 in Moscow in protest over the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan the previous year. In an instance of a boycott called by an international organization, the United Nations in 1965 asked all member states to break off economic relations with Rhodesia, which had illegally declared its independence from Great Britain earlier that year; the boycott remained in effect until 1979.
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