Glands and hormones of the human endocrine system

Table
Glands and hormones of the human endocrine system
gland or tissue principal hormone function
testis testosterone stimulates development of male sex organs and secondary sex characteristics, including facial hair growth and increased muscle mass
ovary estrogens (estrogen) (estradiol, estrone, estriol) stimulate development of female sex organs and secondary sex characteristics, maturation of ovarian follicles, formation and maintenance of bone tissue, and contraction of the uterine muscles
inhibin (folliculostin) inhibits secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland
progesterone stimulates secretion of substances from the lining of the uterus (endometrium) in preparation for egg implantation in the uterine wall
relaxin induces relaxation of pubic ligaments during childbirth to facilitate infant delivery
thyroid gland thyroxine stimulates cellular metabolism, lipid production, carbohydrate utilization, and central and autonomic nervous system activation
triiodothyronine stimulates cellular metabolism, lipid production, carbohydrate utilization, and central and autonomic nervous system activation
adrenal gland, medulla epinephrine (epinephrine and norepinephrine) (adrenaline) stimulates "fight or flight" response, increases heart rate, dilates blood vessels in skeletal muscles and liver, increases oxygen delivery to muscle and brain tissues, increases blood glucose concentrations, and suppresses digestion
norepinephrine (epinephrine and norepinephrine) (noradrenaline) stimulates "fight or flight" response, increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels, increases blood glucose concentrations, and suppresses digestion
adrenal gland, cortex cortisol activates physiological stress responses to maintain blood glucose concentrations, augments constriction of blood vessels to maintain blood pressure, and stimulates anti-inflammatory pathways
aldosterone regulates balance of salt and water in the body
androgens (androgen) contribute to growth and development of the male reproductive system and serve as precursors to testosterone and estrogen
pituitary gland, anterior lobe corticotropin (adrenocorticotropin, ACTH) stimulates growth and secretion of cells of the adrenal cortex; increases skin pigmentation
growth hormone (GH; somatotropin) stimulates growth of essentially all tissues in the body
thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone) stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone and growth of thyroid cells
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates maturation of egg follicles in females and development of spermatozoa in males
luteinizing hormone (LH; interstitial cell stimulating hormone, ICSH) stimulates rupture of mature egg follicles and production of progesterone and androgens in females and secretion of androgens in males
prolactin (PRL; luteotropic hormone, LTH; lactogenic hormone; mammotropin) stimulates and maintains lactation in breast-feeding mothers
pituitary gland, posterior lobe oxytocin stimulates milk ejection during breast-feeding and uterine muscle contraction during childbirth
vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH) regulates fluid volume by increasing or decreasing fluid excretion in response to changes in blood pressure
pituitary gland, intermediate lobe melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH)* stimulate melanin synthesis in skin cells to increase skin pigmentation; may also suppress appetite
hypothalamus corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates synthesis and secretion of corticotropin from the anterior pituitary gland
growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulates synthesis and secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates and regulates secretion of thyrotropin from the anterior pituitary gland and may modulate neuronal activity in the brain and spinal cord
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates synthesis and secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary gland
prolactin-inhibiting factor (PIF; dopamine) inhibits secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland
somatostatin inhibits secretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon in the pancreas, and inhibits secretion of gastrointestinal hormones and secretion of acid in the stomach
gastrointestinal neuropeptides hormones secreted from the stomach and pancreas that stimulate hypothalamic secretion of neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y, gastrin-releasing peptide, and somatostatin, that regulate appetite, fat storage, and metabolism
pancreatic islets of Langerhans (Langerhans, islets of) glucagon maintains blood glucose concentrations by stimulating release of glucose from the liver and production of glucose from amino acids and glycerol
insulin stimulates glucose uptake and storage in adipose, muscle, and liver tissues
somatostatin inhibits glucagon and insulin secretion from the pancreas and inhibits secretion of gastrointestinal hormones and secretion of acid in the stomach
pancreatic polypeptide inhibits contraction of the gallbladder and secretion of exocrine substances from the pancreas
parathyroid gland parathyroid hormone (parathormone) increases serum calcium concentrations by stimulating release of calcium from bone tissue, reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys, and production of vitamin D in the kidneys; inhibits reabsorption of phosphate in the kidneys
calcitonin decreases serum calcium concentrations by promoting uptake of calcium into bone tissue and excretion of calcium in the urine
skin, liver, kidneys (kidney) calciferols (vitamin D) (vitamin D) maintain serum calcium concentrations by increasing absorption of calcium and phosphate in the intestines and reabsorption of calcium and phosphate in the kidneys; mobilizes calcium from bone in response to parathyroid hormone activity
stomach gastrin stimulates secretion of acid and pepsin in the stomach and contraction of the pyloric region of the stomach near the small intestine to increase motility during digestion
duodenum cholecystokinin (cholecystokinin/pancreozymin) (CCK; pancreozymin) stimulates release of bile from the gallbladder into the intestine and stimulates secretion of pancreatic juices into the intestine; may induce satiety
secretin stimulates secretion of water and bicarbonate from the pancreas into the duodenum; inhibits secretion of gastrin in the stomach, delaying gastric emptying
gastric-inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) inhibits secretion of acid into the stomach; stimulates secretion of insulin from the pancreas
vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulates dilation of blood vessels and secretion of water and electrolytes from the intestine; modulates immune functions
pineal gland melatonin regulates circadian rhythm (primarily in response to light and dark cycles) and release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus and gonadotropins from the pituitary gland
kidneys (kidney) renin regulates blood pressure and blood flow by catalyzing conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I in the kidneys
multiple tissues insulin-like growth factors (somatomedins) stimulate growth by mediating secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
prostaglandins (prostaglandin) regulate many physiological processes, including dilation and constriction of blood vessels, aggregation of platelets, and inflammation
*Intermediate lobe hormones referred to collectively as melanotropin or intermedin.
See as table:

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Universalium. 2010.

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