- Walter, John, II
▪ English journalistborn February 23, 1776, Battersea, London, Englanddied July 28, 1847, LondonEnglish journalist, second son of John Walter I, founder of The Times (Times, The), London, who developed (along with Thomas Barnes, editor in chief from 1817 to 1841) a great daily newspaper from a small partisan sheet. Building on the foreign news services established by his father, he gave The Times an advantage over not only its rivals but also the official government dispatches; he published an account of the British naval victory of Trafalgar several days before the British government received a navy report.Succeeding his elder brother, William Walter, as manager in 1803, he made The Times solvent by 1814, in which year he became the first (newspaper) to adapt steam power to printing. Steam presses made The Times the first newspaper capable of meeting the circulation demands of both a wide reading public and advertisers aiming at the bulk of the population. Enabled thus to refuse political party subsidies or private bribes, he converted The Times into what was described (by the 4th earl of Clarendon) as “the true exponent of what English public opinion is or will be.”Walter spent large sums on maintaining an “Extraordinary Express” to bring news from British India. He organized a courier service from Marseille to Paris, a carrier-pigeon delivery from Paris to Boulogne, and a cross-Channel steamer service from Boulogne to Dover linked with a special train to London. In addition, he was the first newspaperman in Britain to use the electric telegraph and is said to have appointed the first full-time war correspondent.
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