▪ The Netherlandsalso called Den Bosch, French Bois-le-Duc,gemeente (municipality), south-central Netherlands (Netherlands, The). It is situated where the Dommel and Aa rivers join to form the Dieze and lies along the Zuidwillemsvaart (canal).Chartered in 1185 by Henry I, duke of Brabant, who had a hunting lodge nearby (hence the name, meaning “the duke's wood”), it was an important medieval wool centre and became a bishopric in 1559. The town saw many sieges owing to its strategic position on the Catholic-Protestant line of division; it was unsuccessfully assaulted by Maurice of Nassau (1601, 1603) during the Dutch revolt against Spain and was captured by Prince Frederick Henry of Orange in 1629. Falling to the French in 1794, it was the chief town of the French département of Bouches-du-Rhin until 1814.Historic landmarks include the town hall (1671) and the Flamboyant Gothic St. John's Cathedral (rebuilt 1419–1520 on Romanesque foundations), the largest Roman Catholic church in The Netherlands. Opposite the town hall is a statue of the painter Hieronymus Bosch, who was born in 's-Hertogenbosch. The town is now a rail junction and a major cattle market. It has service and food-processing industries and manufactures a range of goods including computers and plastics. Pop. (2007 est.) 135,648.
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