Pembroke, Mary Herbert, countess of

▪ English translator
née  Mary Sidney 
born Oct. 27, 1561, near Bewdley, Worcestershire, Eng.
died Sept. 25, 1621, London

      patron of the arts and scholarship, poet, and translator. She was the sister of Sir Philip Sidney (Sidney, Sir Philip), who dedicated to her his Arcadia. After his death she published it and completed his verse translation of the Psalms.

      In 1575 Queen Elizabeth I invited Mary to court, promising “a speciall care” of her. Two years later Mary wed Henry Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, and lived mainly at Wilton House, near Salisbury, Wiltshire. Their sons, William and Philip, were the “incomparable pair of brethren” to whom William Shakespeare's First Folio (1623) was dedicated.

      Among those who praised her for her patronage of poetry was Edmund Spenser, who dedicated his Ruines of Time to her, and Michael Drayton, Samuel Daniel, and John Davies. A lutanist, she inspired Thomas Morley's dedication of Canzonets (1593); and, in his dedication to her of Pilgrimage to Paradise (1592), Nicholas Breton likened her to the Duchess of Urbino, patron in an earlier time to Baldassare Castiglione. Lady Pembroke ranked after the queen as the most admired of Elizabethan femmes savantes.

      Lady Pembroke translated Robert Garnier's tragedy Marc-Antoine and Philippe Duplessis-Mornay's Discours de la vie et de la mort (both 1592) and elegantly rendered Petrarch's Trionfo della morte into terza rima. Modern criticism recognizes her as one of the most significant female poets of the English Renaissance.

Additional Reading
Margaret P. Hannay, Philip's Phoenix: Mary Sidney, Countess of Pembroke (1990).

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Universalium. 2010.

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