- Glanvill, Joseph
▪ British philosopherGlanvill also spelled Glanvilborn 1636, Plymouth, Devon, Eng.died Nov. 4, 1680, Bath, SomersetEnglish self-styled Skeptic and apologist for the Royal Society who defended the reality of witchcraft and ghosts and the preexistence of the soul. Thereby, according to some, he initiated psychical research.Glanvill was educated at Exeter and Lincoln Colleges, Oxford, and served as rector of Frome Selwood and Streat before transferring (1666) to the Abbey Church, Bath. In 1678 he was installed prebendary of Worcester and acted as chaplain to Charles II from 1672.The Vanity of Dogmatizing, or Confidence in Opinions (1661) attacked scholastic dogmatism, to which Glanvill opposed the experimental method. He admitted that universal laws could not be established in this way, but for him a scientific approach was the best available method for gaining knowledge and control over nature. His Plus Ultra or the Progress and Advancement of Knowledge Since the Days of Aristotle (1668) defended the Royal Society's experimental method as religious in nature because it revealed the workings of God. Glanvill's effort to prove scientifically that witches and ghosts exist was viewed as a refutation of atheism. Essays on Several Important Subjects (1676) contains some of his more mature thinking on religion and reason.
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