estado (state), northeastern Venezuela. It is bounded north by the Caribbean Sea, east by Monagas state, south by the Orinoco River, and west by Guárico state. Most of Anzoátegui's area lies in the Llanos (plains). The coastal range tapers off to form the Barcelona Gap near the state capital, Barcelona, a cattle- and coffee-shipping centre on the Neverí River. Cattle raising has been important in the locality for generations, but agriculture, mostly confined to the highland valleys, is relatively insignificant. Petroleum was discovered about 1930, and by the late 20th century Anzoátegui produced about one-tenth of Venezuela's oil. The Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt is the site of extensive oil exploration. Pipelines transport natural gas to Caracas, Maracay, Valencia, and Puerto La Cruz, and coal is mined at Naricual. Manufacturing has become important in the Barcelona–Guanta–Puerto La Cruz complex. The state's highway network is extensive. Area 16,700 square miles (43,300 square km). Pop. (2007 est.) 1,477,926.
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