- Jones, Georgeanna Seeger
▪ 2006American physician (b. July 6, 1912, Baltimore, Md.—d. March 26, 2005, Norfolk, Va.), pioneered (with her husband, Howard W. Jones, Jr.) the development in the U.S. of in vitro fertilization. The couple conducted this work at a clinic that they helped establish at Eastern Virginia Medical School, which they joined in 1978 following their retirement from John Hopkins University. At Johns Hopkins they had spent more than 40 years teaching and conducting research in gynecology and obstetrics. The establishment of the clinic, later named the Jones Institute for Reproductive Medicine, was prompted by the birth in England of the world's first “test-tube baby” (a baby conceived outside the mother's body) about the time the Joneses arrived at Norfolk. The couple led an in vitro fertilization program that resulted in the first American test-tube baby, Elizabeth Jordan Carr, who was born on Dec. 28, 1981. Crucial to the success of the program was Georgeanna Jones's understanding of ovulation and fertility-inducing hormones. Jones obtained a medical degree from Johns Hopkins in 1936. Three years later she was appointed director of the reproductive physiology laboratory at the university, and she became one of the first gynecologic endocrinologists on a medical school faculty in the United States. Among the results of her research in the 1930s was the discovery that the pregnancy hormone now called human chorionic gonadotropin is produced in the placenta rather than in the pituitary gland.
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