penal colony
Distant or overseas settlement established to punish criminals with forced labour and isolation from society.

Such colonies were developed mostly by the English, French, and Russians. Britain sent criminals to its American colonies until the Revolutionary War; Australia was principally a penal colony from its colonization until the mid-19th century. French Guiana, site of a French penal colony, was infamous for its inhumanity; Devil's Island was still operating during World War II. Russian penal colonies were established in Siberia under the tsars but were most widely used during the Stalin era. Notorious for their harsh punishments and underfeeding, most penal colonies have now been abolished.

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      distant or overseas settlement established for punishing criminals by forced labour and isolation from society. Although a score of nations in Europe and Latin America transported their criminals to widely scattered penal colonies, such colonies were developed mostly by the English, French, and Russians. England shipped criminals to America until the American Revolution and to Australia into the middle of the 19th century. France established penal colonies in Africa, New Caledonia, and French Guiana (of which those in the latter, including Devil's Island, were still operating during World War II). French Guiana epitomized the worst features of penal colonies: harsh punishments and the underfeeding of prisoners assigned to hard labour were routine. The Siberian colonies maintained by the Soviet Union were initially organized under the tsars but were most widely employed from the Russian Revolution through the Stalin era. Governments have since turned to alternative means of crime control, and most penal colonies have been abolished. See also exile and banishment.

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Universalium. 2010.

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