or Tiwanacu Spanish TiahuanacoMajor pre-Columbian Andean civilization known from the ruins of the same name near the southern shore of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia.The Tiwanaku civilization spread throughout large areas of Bolivia and Peru and parts of Argentina and Chile. The main site's earliest remains may date from с 200 BC–с AD 200 and its major buildings from с AD 600 to с 1000. Surviving artifacts include stelae, decorated pottery, and the famous Gateway of the Sun (Puerta del Sol), an ornamented doorway carved from a massive stone slab. Much of the culture's success derived from its raised-field farming technique, in which elevated planting surfaces were separated by canals that retained the sun's heat during the cold nights and kept the crops from freezing. Algae that grew in the canals was used for fertilizer. The Tiwanaku culture vanished by 1200.
* * *▪ culture and archaeological site, Boliviaalso spelled Tiahuanaco or Tiwanacumajor pre-Columbian civilization known from ruins of the same name that are situated near the southern shore of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. The main Tiwanaku site was added to UNESCO's World Heritage (World Heritage site) List in 2000.Some scholars date the earliest remains found at the site to the early part of the Early Intermediate Period (c. 200 BC–AD 200); others suggest that the culture is evident in artifacts from the 2nd millennium BC. Probably much of the site, including many of the major buildings, dates from the latter half of the Early Intermediate Period (AD 200–600); some construction, however, must have continued into the Middle Horizon (AD 600–1000), for during this period Tiwanaku influences are seen at Huari (Wari) and elsewhere in the central and southern Andes.The principal buildings of Tiwanaku include the Akapana Pyramid, a huge platform mound or stepped pyramid of earth faced with cut andesite; a rectangular enclosure known as the Kalasasaya, constructed of alternating tall stone columns and smaller rectangular blocks; and another enclosure known as the Palacio. A notable feature of the Kalasasaya is the monolithic Gateway of the Sun, which is adorned with the carved central figure of a staff-carrying Doorway God and other subsidiary figures, sometimes referred to as angels or winged messengers. A great number of freestanding carved stone figures have also been found at the site. Characteristic pottery is a flared beaker form, painted with black, white, and light red representations of pumas, condors, and other creatures on a dark red ground colour. It has been speculated that the people who built the splendid Tiwanaku complex, whose culture had vanished by AD 1200, were the ancestors of the present-day Aymara Indians of highland Bolivia.In the late 20th century, archaeologists discovered new information concerning the Tiwanaku site. Formerly thought to have been largely a ceremonial site, the area since has been revealed as a once-bustling metropolis, the capital of one of the greatest and most enduring of ancient civilizations; nonetheless, relatively little is known about it. Tiwanaku influence was in great measure a result of its remarkable agricultural system. This farming method, known as the raised-field system, consisted of raised planting surfaces separated by small irrigation ditches, or canals. This system was designed in such a way that the canals retained the heat of the intense sunlight during frosty nights on the Altiplano and thus kept the crops from freezing. Algae and aquatic plants that accumulated in the canals were used as organic fertilizer on the raised fields.During the height of its power, Tiwanaku dominated or influenced large portions of what are now eastern and southern Bolivia, northwestern Argentina, northern Chile, and southern Peru. The revived use of the raised-field system by some Bolivian farmers in the late 20th century resulted in increased agricultural production.
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Tiwanaku — Tiwanaku: Spiritual and Political Centre of the Tiwanaku Culture * UNESCO World Heritage Site … Wikipedia
Tiwanaku — Tiwanaku : centre spirituel et politique de la culture tiwanaku * … Wikipédia en Français
Tiwanaku — Sonnentor … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tiwanaku — Tiahuanaco o Tiwanacu, es el recinto arqueológico más importante de Bolivia, entre el lago Titicaca y la ciudad de La Paz. El complejo arqueológico está compuesto por 7 construcciones arquitectónicas importantes estas son: Kalasasaya, Templete… … Enciclopedia Universal
Tiwanaku (desambiguación) — Tiwanaku o Tiahuanaco puede referirse a: Cultura Tiwanaku, cultura precolombina desarrollada en el altiplano boliviano. Tiwanaku (ciudadela), como centro principal e histórico de la cultura anterior. Esta página de desambiguación cataloga… … Wikipedia Español
Civilisation de Tiwanaku — Tiwanaku La porte du Soleil La civilisation de Tiwanaku (en aymara, ou Tiahuanaco, nom de la ville moderne en espagnol), est une civilisation pré inca qui a dominé la moitié sud des Andes centrales entre le V … Wikipédia en Français
Culture Tiwanaku — Tiwanaku La porte du Soleil La civilisation de Tiwanaku (en aymara, ou Tiahuanaco, nom de la ville moderne en espagnol), est une civilisation pré inca qui a dominé la moitié sud des Andes centrales entre le V … Wikipédia en Français
Imperio Tiwanaku-Wari — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar … Wikipedia Español
Puerta del Sol (Tiwanaku) — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Para otros usos de este término, véase Puerta del Sol (desambiguación). La Puerta del Sol en Tiwanaku La Puerta del Sol (Inti Punku) es un monumento de las Ruinas Arqueológicas de Tiwanaku, Bolivia … Wikipedia Español
Cultura Tiwanaku — La cultura tiwanaku (o tiahuanaco) es una importante civilización precolombina cuyo territorio estaba ubicado en lo que ahora es la frontera del Perú y Bolivia. Toma su nombre de las ruinas de la ciudad ancestral de Tiwanaku, en orilla oriental… … Enciclopedia Universal