- Stanley, Wendell Meredith
born Aug. 16, 1904, Ridgeville, Ind., U.S.died June 15, 1971, Salamanca, SpainU.S. biochemist.He taught at the University of California at Berkeley from 1948 until his death. He is known for his work in the purification and crystallization of viruses to demonstrate their molecular structure. He crystallized the tobacco mosaic virus and did important work on the influenza virus, for which he developed a vaccine. He shared a Nobel Prize in 1946 with John Howard Northrop and James Sumner.
* * *▪ American biochemistborn Aug. 16, 1904, Ridgeville, Ind., U.S.died June 15, 1971, Salamanca, SpainAmerican biochemist who received (with John Northrop (Northrop, John Howard) and James Sumner (Sumner, James Batcheller)) the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1946 for his work in the purification and crystallization of viruses, thus demonstrating their molecular structure.Stanley obtained his doctorate from the University of Illinois in 1929. He worked from 1932 to 1948 at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now Rockefeller University) facilities in Princeton, N.J. In 1935 Stanley crystallized tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, the causative agent of a plant disease) and showed that it is a rod-shaped aggregate of protein and nucleic acid molecules. His work enabled other scientists, utilizing methods of X-ray diffraction, to ascertain unambiguously the precise molecular structures and the modes of propagation of several viruses.While a professor of biochemistry and director of the laboratory for virus research at the University of California, Berkeley (1948–71), Stanley studied influenza viruses, for which he developed a preventive vaccine.
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