—foundational, adj. —foundationally, adv. —foundationary, adj./fown day"sheuhn/, n.1. the basis or groundwork of anything: the moral foundation of both society and religion.2. the natural or prepared ground or base on which some structure rests.3. the lowest division of a building, wall, or the like, usually of masonry and partly or wholly below the surface of the ground.4. the act of founding, setting up, establishing, etc.: a policy in effect since the foundation.5. the state of being founded.6. an institution financed by a donation or legacy to aid research, education, the arts, etc.: the Ford Foundation.7. an endowment for such an institution.8. a cosmetic, as a cream or liquid, used as a base for facial makeup.9. See foundation garment.10. Solitaire. a card of given denomination on which other cards are to be added according to denomination or suit.[1350-1400; ME foundacioun < L fundation- (s. of fundatio), equiv. to fundat(us) (ptp. of fundare; see FOUND2) + -ion- -ION]Ant. 2, 3. superstructure.
* * *INongovernmental, nonprofit organization with assets provided by donors and managed by its own officials and with income expended for socially useful purposes.Foundations can be traced back to ancient Greece. The late 19th century first saw the establishment of large foundations with broad purposes and great freedom of action, usually originating in the fortunes of wealthy industrialists. Today foundations are classified as community (having support from many donors and located in a specific community), corporation-sponsored, and independent. Notable examples include the Smithsonian Institution (1846), the Carnegie Corp. of New York (1911), the Rockefeller Foundation (1913), and the Ford Foundation (1936), one of the largest in the world. Nongovernmental organizations are known colloquially as "NGOs."IIPart of a structural system that supports and anchors the superstructure of a building and transmits its loads directly to the earth.To prevent damage from repeated freeze-thaw cycles, the bottom of the foundation must be below the frost line. The foundations of low-rise residential buildings are nearly all supported on spread footings, wide bases (usually of concrete) that support walls or piers and distribute the load over a greater area. A concrete grade beam supported by isolated footings, piers, or piles may be placed at ground level, especially in a building without a basement, to support the exterior wall. Spread footings are also usedin greatly enlarged formfor high-rise buildings. Other systems for supporting heavy loads include piles, concrete caisson columns, and building directly on exposed rock. In yielding soil, a floating foundationconsisting of rigid, boxlike structures set at such a depth that the weight of the soil removed to place it equals the weight of the construction supportedmay be used.III(as used in expressions)mathematics foundations of
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